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The appropriate music title for this page is "Hernando's Hidaway", in honor of all the information that has NOT provided regarding Rimadyl which is now on the Rimadyl whole truth page - as I am strictly a beginner at this 'webmaster' stuff, if it doesn't play  when the page is loaded, it's not YOU and there's nothing wrong with your 'puter - Feel free to turn your speakers off or down. Thank you for your patience and understanding

RIMADYL information sources

Below you will find the information that Pfizer has made available on the Internet for pet owners [please keep in mind that drug companies are in the business to make money first and foremost! Note: all highlighting and/or comments/remarks that are highlighted and in parenthesis are mine, my sole responsibility and provided under the Constitution of the United States of America "freedom of speech" provisions]:
from Pfizer:

Dog Owner Information About Rimadyl® (carprofen)

Rimadyl® (pronounced "Rim-a-dill") for Osteoarthritis and Post-Surgical Pain (aka: "Rim-a-KILL")
Generic name: carprofen ("car-pro-fen")

This summary contains important information about Rimadyl. You should read this information before you start giving your dog Rimadyl and review it each time the prescription is refilled. This sheet is provided only as a summary and does not take the place of instructions from your veterinarian. Talk to your veterinarian if you do not understand any of this information or if you want to know more about Rimadyl.  [feel free to take a look in the "Pfizer and the FDA" section at the "ADE Summary" part to see what too many veterinarians are telling client pet-owners in response to questions about Rimadyl]. 

Surgical pain (e.g., for surgeries such as spays, ear procedures or orthopedic repairs) can be controlled when your veterinarian administers Rimadyl before the procedure. Then, your veterinarian may prescribe Rimadyl treatment for your dog for several days after going home.

What kind of results can I expect when my dog is on Rimadyl for OA?
While Rimadyl is not a cure for osteoarthritis, it can relieve the pain and inflammation of OA and improve your dog’s mobility.

Who should not take Rimadyl?
Your dog should not be given Rimadyl if he/she:

Rimadyl should be given to dogs only.
Cats should not be given Rimadyl. Call your veterinarian immediately if your cat receives Rimadyl. People should not take Rimadyl. Keep Rimadyl and all medicines out of reach of children. Call your physician immediately if you accidentally take Rimadyl.

How to give Rimadyl to your dog.
Rimadyl should be given according to your veterinarian’s instructions. Your veterinarian will tell you what amount of Rimadyl is right for your dog and for how long it should be given. Rimadyl should be given by mouth and may be given with or without food.

What to tell/ask your veterinarian before giving Rimadyl.
Talk to your veterinarian about:

Tell your veterinarian if your dog has ever had the following medical problems:
Tell your veterinarian about:
What are the possible side effects that may occur in my dog during Rimadyl therapy?
Rimadyl, like other drugs, may cause some side effects. Serious but rare side effects have been reported in dogs taking NSAIDs, including Rimadyl. Serious side effects can occur with or without warning, and in rare situations result in death.  [feel free to read the "ADE Summary Report" in the section "Pfizer and the FDA" to see what-all side-effects have occurred and just how 'rare' the horrific side effects and death are.]

The most common NSAID-related side effects generally involve the stomach (such as bleeding ulcers), and liver or kidney problems. Look for the following side effects that can indicate your dog may be having a problem with Rimadyl or may have another medical problem:

It is important to stop therapy and contact your veterinarian immediately if you think your dog has a medical problem or side effect from Rimadyl therapy. If you have additional questions about possible side effects, talk to your veterinarian. [if you are interested in how "helpful" and "competent" and/or "knowledgable" some veterinarians really are regarding "Rimadyl toxicity", read ROMI's story in the "WA State Vet Complaint" area.]

Can Rimadyl be given with other medicines?
Rimadyl should not be given with other NSAIDs (for example, aspirin, etodolac, deracoxib, meloxicam, tepoxalin) or steroids (for example, cortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone, triamcinolone).

Tell your veterinarian about all medicines you have given your dog in the past, and any medicines that you are planning to give with Rimadyl. This should include other medicines that you can get without a prescription. Your veterinarian may want to check that all of your dog's medicines can be given together.

What do I do in case my dog eats more than the prescribed amount of Rimadyl?
Contact your veterinarian immediately if your dog eats more than the prescribed amount of Rimadyl.

What else should I know about Rimadyl?
This sheet provides a summary of information about Rimadyl. If you have any questions or concerns about Rimadyl, or osteoarthritis, or postoperative pain, talk to your veterinarian.

As with all prescribed medicines, Rimadyl should only be given to the dog for which it was prescribed. It should be given to your dog only for the condition for which it was prescribed.
  [please note that Pfizer currently has a campaign in which veterinarians are provided with flyers to send out to their customers for a special deal on a "wellness package" that includes a free trial size packet of Rimadyl.]

It is important to periodically discuss your dog's response to Rimadyl at regular checkups. Your veterinarian will best determine if your dog is responding as expected and if your dog should continue receiving Rimadyl.

To report a suspected adverse reaction, call Pfizer Animal Health at 1-800-366-5288.


U.S. Prescribing Information

Caplet/Chewable Tablets
For oral use in dogs only

Sterile Injectable Solution 50 mg/mL
For subcutaneous use in dogs only
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

CAUTION: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

DESCRIPTION: Rimadyl (carprofen) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class that includes ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen. Carprofen is the nonproprietary designation for a substituted carbazole, 6-chloro-alpha-methyl-9H-carbazole-2-acetic acid. The empirical formula is C15H12ClNO2 and the molecular weight 273.72. The chemical structure of carprofen is shown above. Carprofen is a white, crystalline compound. It is freely soluble in ethanol, but practically insoluble in water at 25°C.

Rimadyl Injectable is a sterile solution containing carprofen. Each mL of Rimadyl Injectable contains 50.0 mg carprofen, 30.0 mg arginine, 88.5 mg glycocholic acid, 169.0 mg lecithin, 10.0 mg benzyl alcohol, 6.17 mg sodium hydroxide, with additional sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid as needed to adjust pH, and water for injection.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Carprofen is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with characteristic analgesic and antipyretic activity approximately equipotent to indomethacin in animal models.1

The mechanism of action of carprofen, like that of other NSAIDs, is believed to be associated with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. Two unique cyclooxygenases have been described in mammals.
2 The constitutive cyclooxygenase, COX-1, synthesizes prostaglandins necessary for normal gastrointestinal and renal function. The inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2, generates prostaglandins involved in inflammation. Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity while inhibition of COX-2 provides anti-inflammatory activity. The specificity of a particular NSAID for COX-2 versus COX-1 may vary from species to species.3 In an in vitro study using canine cell cultures, carprofen demonstrated selective inhibition of COX-2 versus COX-1.4 Clinical relevance of these data has not been shown. Carprofen has also been shown to inhibit the release of several prostaglandins in two inflammatory cell systems: rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and human rheumatoid synovial cells, indicating inhibition of acute (PMN system) and chronic (synovial cell system) inflammatory reactions.1

Several studies have demonstrated that carprofen has modulatory effects on both humoral and cellular immune responses.
5–9 Data also indicate that carprofen inhibits the production of osteoclast-activating factor (OAF), PGE1, and PGE2 by its inhibitory effect in prostaglandin biosynthesis.1

Based upon comparison with data obtained from intravenous administration, carprofen is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed (more than 90% bioavailable) when administered orally.
10 Peak blood plasma concentrations are achieved in 1–3 hours after oral administration of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg to dogs. The mean terminal half-life of carprofen is approximately 8 hours (range 4.5–9.8 hours) after single oral doses varying from 1–35 mg/kg of body weight. After a 100 mg single intravenous bolus dose, the mean elimination half-life was approximately 11.7 hours in the dog. Rimadyl is more than 99% bound to plasma protein and exhibits a very small volume of distribution.

Comparison of a single 25 mg dose in Beagle dogs after subcutaneous and oral administration demonstrated that the dorsoscapular subcutaneous administration results in a slower rate of drug input (as reflected by mean peak observed concentrations) but comparable total drug absorption within a 12 hour dosing interval (as reflected by area under the curve from hours zero to 12 postdose).

Carprofen is eliminated in the dog primarily by biotransformation in the liver followed by rapid excretion of the resulting metabolites (the ester glucuronide of carprofen and the ether glucuronides of 2 phenolic metabolites, 7-hydroxy carprofen and 8-hydroxy carprofen) in the feces (70–80%) and urine (10–20%). Some enterohepatic circulation of the drug is observed.

INDICATIONS: Rimadyl is indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and for the control of postoperative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries in dogs.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Always provide Client Information Sheet with prescription. The recommended dosage for oral administration to dogs is 2 mg/lb (4.4 mg/kg) of body weight daily. The total daily dose may be administered as 2 mg/lb of body weight once daily or divided and administered as 1 mg/lb (2.2 mg/kg) twice daily. For the control of postoperative pain, administer approximately 2 hours before the procedure. Rimadyl tablets are scored and dosage should be calculated in half-tablet increments. Tablets can be halved by placing the tablet on a hard surface and pressing down on both sides of the score. Rimadyl chewable tablets are palatable and willingly consumed by most dogs when offered by the owner. Therefore, they may be fed by hand or placed on food. Care should be taken to ensure that the dog consumes the complete dose.

The recommended dosage for subcutaneous administration to dogs is 2 mg/lb (4.4 mg/kg) of body weight daily. The total daily dose may be administered as either 2 mg/lb of body weight once daily or divided and administered as 1 mg/lb (2.2 mg/kg) twice daily. For control of postoperative pain, administer approximately 2 hours before the procedure.

PALATABILITY: A controlled palatability study was conducted which demonstrated that Rimadyl chewable tablets were readily accepted and consumed on first offering by a majority of dogs.

EFFECTIVENESS: Confirmation of the effectiveness of Rimadyl for the relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, and for the control of postoperative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries, was demonstrated in 7 placebo-controlled, masked studies examining the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effectiveness of Rimadyl caplets in various breeds of dogs.

Separate placebo-controlled, masked, multicenter field studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effectiveness of Rimadyl caplets when dosed at 2 mg/lb once daily or when divided and administered at 1 mg/lb twice daily. In these 2 field studies, dogs diagnosed with osteoarthritis showed statistically significant overall improvement based on lameness evaluations by the veterinarian and owner observations when administered Rimadyl at labeled doses.

Based upon the blood level comparison between subcutaneous and oral administration, Rimadyl effectiveness for osteoarthritis after dorsoscapular subcutaneous and oral administration should be similar, although there may be a slight delay in the onset of relief after subcutaneous injection.

Separate placebo-controlled, masked, multicenter field studies confirmed the effectiveness of Rimadyl caplets for the control of postoperative pain when dosed at 2 mg/lb once daily in various breeds of dogs. In these studies, dogs presented for ovariohysterectomy, cruciate repair and aural surgeries were administered Rimadyl preoperatively and for a maximum of 3 days (soft tissue) or 4 days (orthopedic) postoperatively. In general, dogs administered Rimadyl showed statistically significant reduction in pain scores compared to controls.

ANIMAL SAFETY STUDIES: Laboratory studies in unanesthetized dogs and clinical field studies have demonstrated that Rimadyl is well tolerated in dogs after oral administration.

In target animal safety studies, Rimadyl was administered orally to healthy [young; not mature, and certainly not "senior" dogs]  Beagle dogs at 1, 3, and 5 mg/lb twice daily (1, 3 and 5 times the recommended total daily dose) for 42 consecutive days with no significant adverse reactions. Serum albumin for a single female dog receiving 5 mg/lb twice daily decreased to 2.1 g/dL after 2 weeks of treatment, returned to the pre-treatment value (2.6 g/dL) after 4 weeks of treatment, and was 2.3 g/dL at the final 6-week evaluation. Over the 6-week treatment period, black or bloody stools were observed in 1 dog (1 incident) treated with 1 mg/lb twice daily and in 1 dog (2 incidents) treated with 3 mg/lb twice daily. Redness of the colonic mucosa was observed in 1 male that received 3 mg/lb twice daily.

Two of 8 dogs receiving 10 mg/lb orally twice daily (10 times the recommended total daily dose) for 14 days exhibited hypoalbuminemia. The mean albumin level in the dogs receiving this dose was lower (2.38 g/dL) than each of 2 placebo control groups (2.88 and 2.93 g/dL, respectively). Three incidents of black or bloody stool were observed in 1 dog. Five of 8 dogs exhibited reddened areas of duodenal mucosa on gross pathologic examination. Histologic exam of these areas revealed no evidence of ulceration, but did show minimal congestion of the lamina propria in 2 of the 5 dogs.

In separate safety studies lasting 13 and 52 weeks, respectively, dogs were administered orally up to 11.4 mg/lb/day (5.7 times the recommended total daily dose of 2 mg/lb) of carprofen. In both studies, the drug was well tolerated clinically by all of the animals. No gross or histologic changes were seen in any of the treated animals. In both studies, dogs receiving the highest doses had average increases in serum L-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of approximately 20 IU.

In the 52-week study, minor dermatologic changes occurred in dogs in each of the treatment groups but not in the control dogs. The changes were described as slight redness or rash and were diagnosed as non-specific dermatitis. The possibility exists that these mild lesions were treatment related, but no dose relationship was observed.

Clinical field studies were conducted with 549 dogs of different breeds at the recommended oral doses for 14 days (297 dogs were included in a study evaluating 1 mg/lb twice daily and 252 dogs were included in a separate study evaluating 2 mg/lb once daily). In both studies the drug was clinically well tolerated and the incidence of clinical adverse reactions for Rimadyl-treated animals was no higher than placebo-treated animals (placebo contained inactive ingredients found in Rimadyl). For animals receiving 1 mg/lb twice daily, the mean post-treatment serum ALT values were 11 IU greater and 9 IU less than pre-treatment values for dogs receiving Rimadyl and placebo, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant. For animals receiving 2 mg/lb once daily, the mean post-treatment serum ALT values were 4.5 IU greater and 0.9 IU less than pre-treatment values for dogs receiving Rimadyl and placebo, respectively. In the latter study, 3 Rimadyl-treated dogs developed a 3-fold or greater increase in (ALT) and/or (AST) during the course of therapy. One placebo-treated dog had a greater than 2-fold increase in ALT. None of these animals showed clinical signs associated with laboratory value changes. Changes in the clinical laboratory values (hematology and clinical chemistry) were not considered clinically significant. The 1 mg/lb twice daily course of therapy was repeated as needed at 2-week intervals in 244 dogs, some for as long as 5 years.

Clinical field studies were conducted in 297 dogs of different breeds undergoing orthopedic or soft tissue surgery. Dogs were administered 2 mg/lb of Rimadyl two hours prior to surgery then once daily, as needed for 2 days (soft tissue surgery) or 3 days (orthopedic surgery). Rimadyl was well tolerated when used in conjunction with a variety of anesthetic-related drugs. The type and severity of abnormal health observation in Rimadyl- and placebo-treated animals were approximately equal and few in number (see Adverse Reactions). The most frequent abnormal health observation was vomiting and was observed at approximately the same frequency in Rimadyl- and placebo-treated animals. Changes in clinicopathologic indices of hematopoetic, renal, hepatic, and clotting function were not clinically significant. The mean post-treatment serum ALT values were 7.3 IU and 2.5 IU less than pre-treatment values for dogs receiving Rimadyl and placebo, respectively. The mean post-treatment AST values were 3.1 IU less for dogs receiving Rimadyl and 0.2 IU greater for dogs receiving placebo.

Clinical field studies on the use of Rimadyl Injectable were conducted on 331 dogs undergoing orthopedic or soft tissue surgery. Dogs were administered 2 mg/lb of Rimadyl subcutaneously two hours prior to surgery and once daily thereafter, as needed, for 2 days (soft tissue surgery) or 3 days (orthopedic surgery). Rimadyl was well tolerated when used in conjunction with a variety of anesthetic-related drugs. The type and severity of abnormal health observations in Rimadyl- and placebo-treated animals were approximately equal and few in number (see Adverse Reactions). The most frequent abnormal health observation was vomiting and was observed at approximately the same frequency in Rimadyl- and placebo-treated animals. Changes in clinicopathologic indices of hematopoetic, renal, hepatic, and clotting function were not clinically significant. The mean post-treatment serum ALT values were 8.4 IU and 7.0 IU less than pre-treatment values for dogs receiving Rimadyl and placebo, respectively. The mean post-treatment AST values were 1.5 IU and 0.7 IU greater for dogs receiving Rimadyl and placebo, respectively.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Rimadyl should not be used in dogs exhibiting previous hypersensitivity to carprofen.

PRECAUTIONS: As a class, cyclooxygenase inhibitory NSAIDs may be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Effects may result from decreased prostaglandin production and inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase which is responsible for the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid.11–14 When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandins that cause inflammation they may also inhibit those prostaglandins which maintain normal homeostatic function. These anti-prostaglandin effects may result in clinically significant disease in patients with underlying or pre-existing disease more often than in healthy patients.12,14 NSAID therapy could unmask occult disease which has previously been undiagnosed due to the absence of apparent clinical signs. Patients with underlying renal disease for example, may experience exacerbation or decompensation of their renal disease while on NSAID therapy.11–14 The use of parenteral fluids during surgery should be considered to reduce the potential risk of renal complications when using NSAIDs perioperatively.

Carprofen is an NSAID, and as with others in that class, adverse reactions may occur with its use. The most frequently reported effects have been gastrointestinal signs. Events involving suspected renal, hematologic, neurologic, dermatologic, and hepatic effects have also been reported. Patients at greatest risk for renal toxicity are those that are dehydrated, on concomitant diuretic therapy, or those with renal, cardiovascular, and/or hepatic dysfunction. Concurrent administration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs should be approached cautiously, with appropriate monitoring. Since many NSAIDs possess the potential to induce gastrointestinal ulceration, concomitant use of Rimadyl with other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids and NSAIDs, should be avoided or very closely monitored. Sensitivity to drug-associated adverse reactions varies with the individual patient. For example, Rimadyl treatment was not associated with renal toxicity or gastrointestinal ulceration in well-controlled safety studies of up to ten times the dose in dogs.

Rimadyl is not recommended for use in dogs with bleeding disorders (e.g., Von Willebrand’s disease), as safety has not been established in dogs with these disorders. The safe use of Rimadyl in animals less than 6 weeks of age, in pregnant dogs, dogs used for breeding purposes, or in lactating bitches has not been established. Safety has not been established for IV or IM administration. Studies to determine the activity of Rimadyl when administered concomitantly with other protein-bound or similarly metabolized drugs have not been conducted. Drug compatibility should be monitored closely in patients requiring additional therapy. Such drugs commonly used include cardiac, anticonvulsant and behavioral medications. It has been suggested that treatment with carprofen may reduce the level of inhalant anesthetics needed.15 It is suggested to use different sites for additional injections. If additional pain medication is warranted after administration of the total daily dose of Rimadyl, alternative analgesia should be considered. The use of another NSAID is not recommended.

Due to the palatable nature of Rimadyl chewable tablets, store out of reach of dogs in a secured location. Severe adverse reactions may occur if large quantities of tablets are ingested. If you suspect your dog has consumed Rimadyl chewable tablets above the labeled dose, please call your veterinarian for immediate assistance and notify Pfizer Animal Health (1-800-366-5288).

Rimadyl, like other drugs of its class, is not free from adverse reactions. Owners should be advised of the potential for adverse reactions and be informed of the clinical signs associated with drug intolerance. Adverse reactions may include decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dark or tarry stools, increased water consumption, increased urination, pale gums due to anemia, yellowing of gums, skin or white of the eye due to jaundice, lethargy, incoordination, seizure, or behavioral changes.

Serious adverse reactions associated with this drug class can occur without warning and in rare situations result in death (see Adverse Reactions). Owners should be advised to discontinue Rimadyl therapy and contact their veterinarian immediately if signs of intolerance are observed.

The vast majority of patients with drug related adverse reactions have recovered when the signs are recognized, the drug is withdrawn, and veterinary care, if appropriate, is initiated. [take a look at the ADEs listed in the ADE Summary Report at the "Pfizer and the FDA" section and you will see some vastly different statistics - but then, of course, I'm not 'selling' anything here.]

Owners should be advised of the importance of periodic follow up for all dogs during administration of any NSAID.

WARNINGS: Keep out of reach of children. Not for human use. Consult a physician in cases of accidental ingestion by humans. For use in dogs only. Do not use in cats.

All dogs should undergo a thorough history and physical examination before initiation of NSAID therapy. Appropriate laboratory tests to establish hematological and serum biochemical baseline data prior to, and periodically during, administration of any NSAID should be considered. Owners should be advised to observe for signs of potential drug toxicity (see Information for Dog Owners and Adverse Reactions).

ADVERSE REACTIONS: During investigational studies for the caplet formulation with twice daily administration of 1 mg/lb, no clinically significant adverse reactions were reported. Some clinical signs were observed during field studies (n=297) which were similar for carprofen caplet- and placebo-treated dogs. Incidences of the following were observed in both groups: vomiting (4%), diarrhea (4%), changes in appetite (3%), lethargy (1.4%), behavioral changes (1%), and constipation (0.3%). The product vehicle served as control.

There were no serious adverse events reported during clinical field studies with once daily administration of 2 mg/lb. The following categories of abnormal health observations were reported. The product vehicle served as control.

STORAGE: Store tablets at controlled room temperature 15°–30°C (59°–86°F). Store injectable under refrigeration 2°–8°C (36°–46°F).

HOW SUPPLIED: Rimadyl caplets and chewable tablets are scored, and contain 25 mg, 75 mg, or 100 mg of carprofen per caplet or tablet. Each caplet size is packaged in bottles containing 30, 60, or 180 caplets, or blister packs containing 4 caplets. Each chewable tablet size is packaged in bottles containing 7, 30, 60, or 180 tablets. Rimadyl Injectable is supplied in 20-mL, amber, glass, sterile, multi-dose vials.

1. Baruth H, et al: In Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Rheumatic Drugs, Vol. II, Newer Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Rainsford KD, ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p. 33, 1986.
2. Vane JR, Botting RM: Mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs. Scand J Rheumatol 25:102, pp. 9–21.
3. Grossman CJ, Wiseman J, Lucas FS, et al: Inhibition of constitutive and inducible cyclooxygenase activity in human platelets and mononuclear cells by NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors. Inflammation Research 44:253–257, 1995.
4. Ricketts AP, Lundy KM, Seibel SB: Evaluation of selective inhibition of canine cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 by carprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Vet Res 59:11, pp. 1441–1446, November 1998.
5. Ceuppens JL, et al: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibit the synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in vitro. Lancet 1:528, 1982.
6. Ceuppens JL, et al: Endogenous prostaglandin E2 enhances polyclonal immunoglobulin production by ionically inhibiting T suppressor cell activity. Cell Immunol 70:41, 1982.
7. Schleimer RP, et al: The effects of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition on the immune response. Immunopharmacology 3:205, 1981.
8. Leung KH, et al: Modulation of the development of cell mediated immunity: Possible roles of the products of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Int J Immunopharmacology 4:195, 1982.
9. Veit BC: Immunoregulatory activity of cultured-induced suppressor macrophages. Cell Immunol 72:14, 1982.
10. Schmitt M, et al: Biopharmaceutical evaluation of carprofen following single intravenous, oral, and rectal doses in dogs. Biopharm Drug Dispos 11(7):585, 1990.
11. Kore AM: Toxicology of nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 20, March 1990.
12. Binns SH: Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic injury in cases of acute renal failure. Compend for Cont Ed 16:1, January 1994.
13. Boothe DM: Prostaglandins: Physiology and clinical implications. Compend for Cont Ed 6:11, November 1984.
14. Rubin SI: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, and the kidney. JAVMA 188:9, May 1986.
15. Ko CH, Lange DN, Mandsager RE, et al: Effects of butorphanol and carprofen on the minimal alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. JAVMA 217:1025–1028, 2000.

For a copy of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or to report adverse reactions call Pfizer Animal Health at 1-800-366-5288.

NADA #141-053 NADA #141-111, NADA #141-199 Approved by FDA

Injectable Manufactured by: Vericore Limited, Dundee, United Kingdom
Distributed by:

Animal Health
Exton, PA 19341, USA
Div. of Pfizer Inc
NY, NY 10017

©2003 Pfizer Inc March 2003
Printed in USA

from: which has a publication date of: 1/01/2001 [still posted as is on October 11, 2004:
By Wendy C. Brooks, DVM, DipABVP
Educational Director,

Carprofen (Rimadyl)
(for veterinary information only)

Available in 25 mg, 75 mg & 100 mg caplets


Carprofen is a member of the class of drugs known as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), the same class as such common over-the-counter remedies as Advil (ibuprofen), Orudis (ketoprofen), and aspirin. The chief use for such drugs in the dog has been pain relief, usually joint pain or post-surgical pain relief.

The problem with this class of drugs has been unacceptable, even life-threatening side effects. Problems have in the past been related to:

The veterinary profession has been in need of an NSAID that could effectively relieve pain without the above risks. In 1997, Pfizer Animal Health released this medication for dogs in the U.S. as the answer to this need. This medication had been available in the U.K. since 1994 and has earned a reputation for effectiveness and safety.

This new plane of safety is made possible by new biochemical knowledge. The enzyme responsible for many inflammatory mediators is called cyclo-oxygenase-2 while another enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase-1, is responsible for producing important biochemicals needed to maintain normal blood supply to the kidneys and GI tract. It had been previously impossible to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-2 without also inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-1, hence the side effects of previous NSAIDS. Carprofen is what is called a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor. Carprofen does inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1 slightly but, for the first time, it became possible to exert a different effect on each of these two enzymes.


Carprofen is used in the treatment of pain either for short term or long term use. It takes 1 to 3 hours after oral administration for a dose of carprofen to reach its maximum effect. As of December 2001, carprofen has been licensed for once a day use (i.e., the dose for the entire day can be given all at once).

Carprofen is approved only for canine use officially and dogs may safely take this medication long term with no ill effects. Injectable carprofen, only available in the U.K., is commonly used for post-operative pain relief in the cat but only one or two doses are typically given. Do not use this medication in a cat without specific veterinary guidance.


The hepatopathy reaction usually occurs in the first 3 weeks after starting carprofen but could theoretically occur later.

It is important to consider the rarity of one in 5000 side effects. In 1998, the adverse event rate overall was less than one in 500 dogs with simple upset stomach being the most common effect. Many exaggerated reports and rumors have surfaced on the internet and it is important to consider only confirmed and properly investigated information.

To read the most recent Pfizer Animal Health Technical Bulletin on carprofen, see:


Drugs of the NSAID class should not be used concurrently as the potential for the aforementioned side effects increases. For similar reasons, NSAIDS should not be used in conjunction with corticosteroid hormones such as prednisone, dexamethasone, etc. Pfizer recommends a 2 to 3 day rest period when changing over to carprofen or to another NSAID from carprofen. Aspirin poses an exception due to its strong platelet inactivating abilities so 10 to 14 days is recommended when switching to carprofen from aspirin. Allow at least one week between prednisone and carprofen.

If carprofen is used concurrently with phenobarbital , it is especially important that appropriate liver monitoring be performed. (Our hospital recommends bile acids testing every 6 months for dogs on phenobarbital.) These two drugs interact such that neither may work well if they are used together.

ACE inhibitors such as enalapril or captopril may not be as effective in the presence of carprofen. (ACE inhibitors are used in the treatment of hypertension or heart failure.) This is because ACE inhibitors depend on the dilation of blood vessels in the kidneys and such dilation can be interfered with by NSAIDs (though as discussed, carprofen as a COX-2 inhibitor is less apt to pose a problem than other NSAIDs might).

In 9% of all adverse reactions reported regarding carprofen, concurrent use with corticosteroids was reported.


Carprofen is available as a chewable tablet which is highly palatable to animals. This increases the potential for accidental overdose should a pet gain access to a large amount of chewable tablets. Keep chewable carprofen out of the reach of children and pets.

Carprofen has not been tested in pregnant or nursing females and thus is not recommended for use in such individuals.

Carprofen should not be used in dogs with pre-existing liver or kidney disease. In order to screen for pre-existing liver or kidney disease it is a good idea to run a blood chemistry panel prior to starting long term carprofen.


Carprofen should not be used in patients with pre-existing GI ulcerations. 

Read the product insert for carprofen at

It is our policy not to give dosing information over the Internet.

Date Published: 1/1/2001

The ASPCA on-line at: provides the "Animal Poison Control Center" where if you need/want information about 'toxicity' you can call for help, however their search engine for "Rimadyl" provided the message on 10/11/04 of " Sorry, no results were found for your search."

Telephone Numbers/Fees

(888) 4ANIHELP  (426-4435)
$50.00 per case (Visa, MasterCard, Discover or American Express). The Center will do as many follow-up calls as necessary in critical cases, and at the owner's request will contact their veterinarian. The Center also provides via fax specific treatment protocols and current literature citations when indicated.


Emerging Trends
Manimal: Humans And Pets Are Sharing Ailments And Drugs
Find/SVP, 10.06.04, 7:00 AM ET
Hot Trend: Increasing numbers of pets are being treated for the same conditions that affect their owners, and pharmcos are creating a range of crossover products in response--at least 40 have been created in the past decade, and more are in the pipeline. [Crossover is usually, in this trend, from human to animal protocols.]

Why: The "pets are people, too" trend that's been building for the last several years means that owners are willing to spend serious money on their companion animals' quality of life. Improved nutrition has meant longer life spans for pets in general, along with the downside of longevity: the onset of arthritis, diabetes, and obesity, among other ailments. Drug companies are looking to repurpose medications that failed human trials, are still experimental or just have potential with another class of mammal, according to Find/SVP veterinary industry consultant Mary Ellen Epstein. "Approvals may be simpler; many drugs have often made it through the trial phases, and companies are looking to maximize profits."

Opportunity: Pfizer's (nyse: PFE - news - people ) Rimadyl and Fort Dodge's (nyse: WYE - news - people ) Lodine anti-inflammatories are two of the most successful drugs to have entered the companion animal market, and both Pfizer and Merck (nyse: MRK - news - people ) are looking to convert successful cardiac medications as well. Pet and vet magazines are thronged with ads for drugs and supplements for everything from fleas to diabetes to separation anxiety. Both marketers and vets are supporting more sophisticated protocols for conditions that once dictated euthanasia. One route to consumers' wallets is through adroit exploitation of the human/animal bond, says Epstein, with the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association putting the total market at $31 billion. And as drug and therapy options continue to grow, the small world of veterinary pet insurance (now approximately 4% of pet owners) may also get a boost.

Danger: Pet ownership continues to go up (with the pet population increasing by more than 10 million since 1992) but other than that, "there's no real data on exactly how much pet owners are willing to spend for above-average medical care and long-term treatment" cautions Epstein. And pet insurance, if this market expands, may actually complicate matters, just as HMOs have complicated human health care. Also, research and development, as well as getting drugs to market is expensive, even in the pet area, so companies will want to make careful choices about which diseases and markets to go after.
Pfizer Inc. is a global pharmaceutical and consumer  products company that discovers, develops, manufactures  and markets medicines for human and animal indications. For  the 6 months ended 6/27/04, total revenues rose 35% to  $24.76B. Net income from cont. ops. before acct. change  applic. to Common totaled $5.16B vs. a loss of $1.22B.  Results reflect the acquisition of Pharmacia and the launch  of new products, and a decrease in merger related costs.   

Revenues (Millions of U.S. Dollars $)  
Last Quarter 12,274

Pfizer Executives:
1 - 23 of 23
Name Title Age Total cash comp. at PFE Forbes Lists
Henry A McKinnell Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer 61 $9,706,002   
Henry A McKinnell

Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer at
Pfizer Inc.
New York,  New York
Officer since 1992
Director since June 1997
61 years old
Stanford Graduate School of Business Doctor of Philosophy
Stanford Graduate School of Business Master of Business Administration
University of British Columbia Bachelors Degree in Business

Henry A. McKinnell has served as Chairman of our Board since May 2001. Our Chief Executive Officer since January 2001. Our President from May 1999 to May 2001, and President, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Group, the principal operating division of the Company, from January 1997 to April 2001. Chief Operating Officer from May 1999 to December 2000 and Executive Vice President from 1992 to 1999. Director of ExxonMobil Corporation, Moody's Corporation and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chairman Emeritus of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Chairman of the Business Roundtable, Director of the Trilateral Commission and the Business Council, and Chairman of the Stanford University Graduate School of Business Advisory Council. Chairman Emeritus of the Business-Higher Education Forum, a Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, Member of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, and a member of the Boards of Trustees of the New York City Public Library, the New York City Police Foundation and the Economic Club of New York. Our Director since June 1997. Chair of our Executive Committee and a member of the Pfizer Leadership Team.

 Salary $2,042,700 
 Bonus $4,607,400 
 Latest FY other short-term comp. $19,534 
 Latest FY other long-term comp. $249,390 
 Latest FY long-term incentive payout $2,786,978 
 Total $9,706,002 

 Number of options  Market value 
 exercised $0 
 unexercised 2,322,158  $24,449,185 
 unexercisable 2,593,000  $6,179,640 
 Total 4,915,158  $30,628,825 

Ex. options1  Unex. options2  Tot. cash comp. 
  Director for
John Wiley & Sons (JW.A)
n/a  n/a  n/a 
  Director for
Moody's Corporation (MCO)
n/a  n/a  n/a 
  Director for
Exxon Mobil Corporation (XOM)
n/a  n/a  n/a 
  Total n/a  n/a  n/a 


May my beloved partner ROMI rest in peace  - no matter wherever her bits and pieces/frozen carcass may be held hostage.


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